Quantitative Research Proposal 1



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QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1 Sample of the Quantitative Research Proposal In the following pages, you will find a sample of the full BGS research proposal with each section or chapter as it might look in a completed research paper beginning with the title page and working through each chapter and section of the research proposal.

Full Title of the Paper Your Full Name (as it appears on your transcript) Trinity Washington University I have adhered to University policy regarding academic honesty in completing this assignment Submitted to *Instructor Title and Name on behalf of the faculty of the School of Business and Graduate Studies in partial fulfillment of the degree requirements for the Full Name of the *Degree Program Semester Year *Use the title Dr., or Prof. if the instructor does not have an earned doctorate. Do not use Mr. or Ms. ** For example, Master of Arts in Communication, Master of Science Administration in Federal Programs Management.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 2 Abstract The abstract consists of 150 to 250 words in a single paragraph, see APA 6th Publication Manual section 2.04 for guidelines regarding items to be included. After the abstract one the same page and starting a new paragraph are keywords, in italics, that will assist others in researching scholarly work related to your topic. Remember there is no indent in this paragraph. Your instructor may determine the length of the abstract as long as it fits the parameters of no more than 250 words. The abstract should be comprised of the following sentences: One to two sentence(s) covering the general context of the research topic One to two sentence(s) regarding the specific research problem One sentence regarding the research methodology One to two sentences regarding the significant findings Some instructors will require a sentence regarding the conclusions and recommendations Keywords: Include topic, major theories, keywords others might use to find your work, research methods. *Note that the shortened title header and page number begin here on the second page with page # 2. When you set up your shortened title as the header, do that on the title page, then select different first page in the header design tab. Also, there should be no lists in an abstract. It is one solid paragraph, two if necessary. *Acknowledgements or Dedications would each have their own page following the abstract. *All front matter has regular, not bold, headings and the front matter does not appear in the table of contents.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 3 Table of Contents Page Introduction ................................................................................................................................6 Statement of the Problem .................................................................................................6 Purpose of the Study ........................................................................................................6 Significance of the Study .................................................................................................7 Theory or Theoretical Perspective ...................................................................................7 Research Method .............................................................................................................7 Definition of Key Terms ..................................................................................................8 Delimitations ...................................................................................................................8 Limitations of the Study ..................................................................................................8 Summary .........................................................................................................................9 Literature Review ...................................................................................................................... 10 Sections ......................................................................................................................... 10 *Subject of Case Study .................................................................................................. 10 Review of Related Research .......................................................................................... 11 Theoretical Framework .................................................................................................. 11 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 14 Research Methodology .............................................................................................................. 15 Research Questions ....................................................................................................... 17 Setting ........................................................................................................................... 19 Population ..................................................................................................................... 19 *Data Source(s) ............................................................................................................. 20 Ethical Considerations ................................................................................................... 20

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 4 Research Design ............................................................................................................ 21 Intervention Protocol ..................................................................................................... 25 Survey Instrument and Protocol ..................................................................................... 25 Summary ....................................................................................................................... 26 References ................................................................................................................................ 27 Appendices ............................................................................................................................... 28 Appendix A: Recruitment Materials: English ................................................................. 29 Appendix B: Recruitment Materials: Español ................................................................ 31 Appendix C: Informed Consent Form ............................................................................ 33 Appendix D: Survey Instrument ......................................................................................2 *Use Heading One, primary level heading, for each chapter, and Heading Two for each secondary level heading (indented 0.5”) for each section within the chapter. Third level and below headings do not appear in the Table of Contents. The Table of Contents ends with the Appendices section. Use the MS Word heading function to establish your two heading levels and to edit how they appear in the document. Then you can use the Table of Contents builder to auto-create the table of Contents. Microsoft Help in MS Word can assist you with learning this.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 5 List of Tables Page Table 1. Variables and measures ............................................................................................... 23 Table 2. Measures of association............................................................................................... 23 Table 3. Nominal measures of association ................................................................................. 23 Table 4. Ordinal measures of association, -1.0 to 1.0 ................................................................ 24 Table 5. Equivalents of probability, fraction, and percent ......................................................... 24 List of Figures Page Figure 1. The quantitative theoretical framework ...................................................................... 13 *Note: you may place the list of tables and the list of figures on one page, but you should choose to put them on separate pages if either list is extensive.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 6 Introduction The introduction is developed in a preamble section that is not labeled as a subsection. The introduction is developed in one to two paragraphs discussing the general context of your research topic. You may recognize this as your background to the study. This is both an expansion of your abstract and a more concise summation of your Literature Review. This will determine the outline of the body of the Literature Review. Think of this as an outline or a thumbnail sketch of the highlights of your Literature Review. Since it is a summation of other author and theorists work remember to cite heavily at the end of the paragraphs or as needed in the text. You should plan on one to two paragraphs of general context regarding your research topic, which you might consider a state of world affairs briefing, at least the nation of your research topic. Then provide one to two paragraphs of more specific context regarding your topic, this might be considered the state of your community briefing. You are preparing your audience to understand and accept the statement of the problem. For example, you might discuss in the general context the history of synthetic marijuana use. Then in the specific context you might discuss the upsurge in synthetic marijuana use. Statement of the Problem You will provide one concise paragraph discussing your research problem. Be specific in describing this problem. For example, you might discuss the problem of the recent increase in synthetic marijuana use among preteens in Northwest DC and the resulting risks to their health and lifestyle. Remember you have prepared the reader with the preamble above this section. Purpose of the Study Discuss in one paragraph what you will do in the research. This is made obvious in the argument of the Literature Review. This is a brief statement of how you will investigate the

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 7 research problem. For example, the purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of the use of synthetic marijuana use among preteens which will lead to a prevention and intervention model to be used in community centers citywide. Significance of the Study Discuss what the benefit will be of addressing the research problem might be to the population of your study, the academic community. For example, Health professionals, educators, staff members, and concerned citizens will have relevant information and an intervention model they might make use of to curb preteen use of synthetic marijuana. Theory or Theoretical Perspective A brief discussion of the theory your quantitative research study is investigating, or a brief discussion of the theoretical perspective of your qualitative research. You might have a specific rationalist or modernist theory that describes cause and effect and you would discuss that theory. Or you might perceive this problem to be a result of a social construction in the discourse between parents and children and you would discuss social constructionism, or the conversations in society concerning the benefits of rebellious individualism. So you would discuss the theories of hegemonic language and the process of de-centering the discourse to change the source of power in the discourse. In another example, you might compare the five common health behavioral models to the results of the study and suggest my own intervention model. So you would discuss the overarching theoretical field of behavioral change. Research Method A concise paragraph describing the research method used to investigate the problem. This can later be expanded into the preamble of your research methods chapter. Cite the textbooks and research articles, which inform you. Creswell’s Research Design, 3rd or 4th ed.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 8 Have great discussions of quantitative research methods and useful checklists. Additionally, language from Remler and Van Ryzin’s, Research in Practice, can be helpful. Definition of Key Terms Keep this brief, if extensive a glossary is required, which would belong in the appendices Each definition appears as a third level heading in this section. Cite the sources of your materials. For example: De-centering: a means of changing the power of negative or oppressive words and phrases that hegemonic cultures subconsciously use to impose and maintain the power relationships in the cultures as defined and proposed by Jacques Derrida (Hatch & Cunliffe, 2006, p. 311). And so on… Delimitations Most research topics cover areas that are far too multitudinous, multifaceted, complex, or inexhaustible to be addressed in a research study of any scope, say nothing of an undergraduate or a graduate level research paper. There are research directions and research questions suggested by your research topic but are not addressed in this research study. Discuss a few of these to show that you know where your research fits in its scholarly community and that you know what you can accomplish Limitations of the Study Describe what your research design cannot accomplish due to the scope of the project, limitations of time and resources. However, do not adopt a whiny and petulant tone; you are simply acknowledging reality, as does every other student in your position. For example, Due to the scope of this research project you are not able to collect data from the entire recommended

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 9 population sample, so your study is limited by the number of participants, or that you used a convenience sample. Summary Then the author would wrap up the chapter with the summarization of the chapter and a transition to the next chapter as described above. Notice that this section started with a secondary level heading. Each section within a chapter uses a second level heading, which appears in the table of contents, indented and below the chapter heading.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 10 Literature Review The literature review begins with a Preamble, which is not indicated with a heading. This is presented differently from the introduction chapter. In two to four paragraphs discuss set the context for your literature review and discuss what you will cover or accomplish in this chapter. Sections One each as determined by the theoretical construct or theoretical framework and as many as necessary to support the academic argument and exhibit inclusion of the scholarly community(ies) and the student’s competence and mastery of the subject. Do not forget current, previous research, and alternate research methods used to investigate your research topic. Additionally be certain to include critiques of the works you cover in this chapter. These develop the reader’s understanding of the context of the research problem and lead to the discovery of the theoretical construct or theoretical framework, the research problem and the research questions. The literature review shows the unique approach of the study and how it adds to the body of knowledge and informs the scholarly or practitioner communities and includes the theories that will inform the research study *Subject of Case Study This is an alternate section that applies only to case study research. Students pursuing a case study will present an additional section for the subject of their case study. This section will be titled for the case study. This is a thorough discussion of the subject and not and exposition of the data you will discuss in the findings chapter. If you are pursuing a study with multiple cases you will present a section for each case subject.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 11 Review of Related Research Review the methods others have used to explore topics similar to yours and discuss how they inform your perspective and your research project. Theoretical Framework In the quantitative research study this is a Theoretical Framework and at a minimum this should include the dependent variable (constant) and the independent variable (factors that effect the dependent), and should also include the moderating and intervening variables. You will describe your theoretical framework or theoretical construct as a model of your research problem. Think of it as your working theory for this study. This is the precise meaning that the variables or factors will have in your study and not the broader meanings that might be apparent in the literature review. Begin by developing a visual representation (figure) of your model. In a quantitative study discuss the dependent variable in relation to each independent variable and then how the mediating and intervening variables impact both the dependent and independent variables. This is your opportunity to show your competence in conducting the research and your mastery of the problem. You will have instructors who ask that the theoretical construct or framework appear in a separate chapter at their prerogative. Name and define the variables: Dependent, independent, intervening, and moderating and provide a brief description of each, much like your definition of key terms. This clarifies for the reader the specific nature of your variables and limits their interpretation by critics. Then provide a figure that models your theoretical construct or framework. Dependent variable. Use the name of this variable for the title of this heading. This is a brief and concise paragraph of description, with citations and establishes the operational

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 12 (measureable) definition for this study. Think of this as the experiment’s resulting steady state. For example, preteens who are less disposed to be attracted to the use of synthetic marijuana. Independent variable one (IV1): Use the name of this variable for the title of this heading. This is a brief and concise paragraph of description for each variable, with citations, and establishes the operational (measureable) definition for this study. For example, positive relationships with parents or guardians, strong adult – non parent role model relationships, supportive friendships, positive body image, interest in athletics, and etcetera. Independent variable two (IV2): and etcetera…. Figure 1. The model of the quantitative theoretical framework For example: Dependent variable. The ideal state of voting representation of the District of Columbia is similar to any other state in the United States. This would require full budget autonomy or the ability of the District of Columbia to raise, spend and manage local tax dollars. Secondly, full Congressional voting representation is the ideal state of the dependent variable (Gray, 2013). Dependent variable IV 1 IV 2 IV 2 IV 4 Intervening variables: List Moderating variables: List

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 13 Independent variable one (IV1). Public Safety: As a performance measurement defined by the Mayor of the District of Columbia, public safety has entered the forefront of city politics in the nation’s capital. When discussing public safety, an emphasis on crime must be made to focus the discussion on public perceptions of this politically fueled debate. According to Duffy, Wake, Burrows and Bremner (2008), “crime has been a major focus for the government over the past decade, with a raft of new legislation since 1997” (Duffy, Wake, Burrows, & Bremner, 2008, p. 17). Moreover, public perception of crime seems to overshadow the actuality of crime. Researches have noted that “the public still thinks that crime rates are soaring and the personal safety has declined” (Duffy, Wake, Burrows, & Bremner, 2008, p. 17). Crime as a political tool utilized by public administrators is not a new phenomenon. Mayor Vincent C. Gray has outlined his agenda with respect to crime to ensure safer streets (Gray, 2013). Another critical component of defining crime with respect to community engagement is the effect of crime on a populace. This affect results in social organization of a community. Hartnnagel (1979) asserts that “Durkeims’s argument that crime increases solidarity by binding people together in opposition to the law violator” (Hartnagel, 1979, p. 177) is a primary factor within the relationship between community solidarity and crime. This relationship is similar to the dynamics surrounding the negative relationship of African American political cynicism and voting behavior in which communities unite around a critical issue, crime, and inversely exhibit a coalescing affect that yields a socially rewarding behavior. Independent variable two (IV2). Education. Scholars have also examined the attitudes towards education extensively. According to Mayor Vincent Gray (2013). One of the primary goals of the Gray administration is to ensure that all District residents, from birth to age 24, have access to a first-rate system of public education. Mayor Gray's commitment is to expand quality education options throughout the District. He wants to see the availability of universal pre-K to all in need, the creation of outstanding traditional public and public charter schools, and access to local higher education opportunities at both the University of the District of Columbia and the Community College of the District of Columbia (Government, 2013).

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 14 Independent variable three (IV3). Economic Development: According to the Gray (2013) administration, economic development is defined as: Fiscal responsibility in the long term also depends on getting District residents back to work. The District has neighborhoods with unemployment rates approaching 25 percent. Although the District is rich in job opportunities, some of its residents do not benefit from these opportunities because District jobs are often held by non-District residents. In response, the Gray administration has developed a dual track approach that gets residents back to work by attracting new economic development proposals that create jobs and by developing initiatives designed to equip our unemployed and underemployed residents with the skills and resources they need to find good jobs (Jobs and Economic Development, 2013). Moderating Variables: in this study the following moderating variables will be considered: time in residence in the District of Columbia, and political party affiliation. The relationship of the dependent variables to the independent variable is outlined in the model below. Figure 1. The theoretical framework of the study. Summary And of course, end your chapter with a brief discussion of what you have covered in this chapter and transition to the next chapter. Dependent Variable DC Congressional Voting Representation and Budget Autonomy IV 1: Econmoic Development IV 2: Education IV 3: Public Safety Moderating Variables: Time in residence, political affiliation

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 15 Research Methodology The research methodology section describes the worldview or philosophy, the underpinning practices and procedures for conducting and replicating your research, and the type or research study this is (observation, field, natural, or quasi- experiment). It also informs scholars and practitioners regarding the rigor and the appropriateness of your methodology in relation to the scholarly community in which the research belongs. Some research methodologies are rigid in their expectations and do not allow for variance, while others allow for variation in the form of the research design, which can make each research project unique. This is acceptable as long as the research design is approved by your faculty and can be replicated. Please do not over invest your time until your instructor has approved your research methodology. Cite the textbooks and research articles, which inform you. Creswell’s Research Design, 3rd or 4th ed. Have great discussions of quantitative research methods and useful checklists. Additionally, language from Remler and Van Ryzin’s, Research Methods, can be helpful. *Institutional Review Board (IRB) and Ethical Conduct in Research. This section also provides important information used for preparing the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval request. As you know by now the IRB must approve your research prior to interacting with human subjects or collecting data from human subjects. It is recommended that studies that do not intend to interact with human subjects apply and receive approval from the IRB to prevent unintended harm to others and the loss of the resulting research data. Please be certain to use the BGS specific IRB forms and procedures. All research regardless of whether or not it interacts with humans must apply to and be approved by the IRB. All research involving human interaction must include a signed informed

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 16 consent form. Subjects under the age of eighteen and others who are not able to sign for themselves are not included in BGS student research. You will need to keep the consent forms and information confidential and separate from the data. Confidentiality means that you may not reveal who participated in your research, unless otherwise directed by an agent of the university, which should come through the IRB, the Dean’s Office, or your instructor. Your instructor or the IRB can ask to review your consent documentation to verify the authenticity of your participants. A common pitfall for students is that they test their data collection instruments with likely subjects or begin to collect data PRIOR to receiving approval to their research by the IRB. These students must destroy this data and it cannot be used in the research study. Violation of this policy might lead to an academic dishonesty hearing and the potential for being dismissed from the university. Students will find examples of suggested sections to include in several types of research methodology. You might find that you need additional sections to adequately discuss and describe your research methodology. Chose the appropriate format in conjunction with your instructor, who may suggest alternative sections and formats as are appropriate to your research methodology. Remember, the instructor has the final say regarding these sections. The option presented below is for a quantitative research project or study, with human interaction or with archived data. The title of this section would not be included in your paper, it is provided as a marker of the beginning of a new section. The preamble would follow directly after the chapter heading: Research Methodology. Begin the chapter with a preamble (a discussion of what will be covered or accomplished in this chapter and is presented without a subsection heading). Here you might address the

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 17 worldview or philosophy that guides your research and provide a general discussion of your methodology. Your research methodology is essentially concerned with your strategy for collecting data and informing your readers of how you will ensure the replicability and rigor of your strategy. Your research design might vary depending on whether or not you intend to introduce an intervention and measure its results. Intervention research studies would then include both the plan for the intervention and the instrument you will use to measure the effects of the intervention. Research studies that plan to measure and explain an existing phenomenon without an intervention would include the data collection instrument. Think of this as the warm up for the full discussion of your data collection strategy in the sections below. *Please note that it is important to distinguish and understand prior to your Research Design (or Research Strategy) section there is a difference between studies involving human intervention and those that rely on secondary forms of data. To start a human intervention study, after the preamble you would begin with the sections: Setting, and Population. Studies using secondary data you would start with Data Source (or Sources) after the preamble and then move to the Research Design section. A study involving both human participants and secondary data you would use all three sections. All three of these sections are described below. Use the ones appropriate to your study. Research Questions List and then discuss each of the general questions that determine what methods you will use and what type of data you will collect. These are indicated by the research problem and bound by your theoretical perspective and your research methodology. These are later made obvious in the argument of the Literature Review. For example,

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 18 The researcher sets out to understand the impact of voting rights and budget autonomy on residents of the District of Columbia. Specifically, the research will determine the relationship of the moderating variables of public safety, education, economic development, voter engagement, and voter disenfranchisement on Congressional voting representation and budget autonomy. Research question one (RQ1): How are attitudes towards education, public safety and economic development impacted significantly by the lack of Congressional voting representation and budget autonomy? Null hypothesis one (H01): Attitudes towards education, public safety and economic development are not impacted significantly by the lack of Congressional voting representation and budget autonomy. Alternate hypothesis one (H1): Attitudes towards education, public safety and economic development are impacted significantly by the lack of Congressional voting representation and budget autonomy. Research question two (RQ2): Are residents of the District engaged in the political process despite the lack of Congressional voting representation and budget autonomy? Null hypothesis two (H02): Residents of the District are engaged in the political process despite the lack of Congressional voting representation and budget autonomy. Alternate hypothesis two (H2): Residents of the District are not engaged in the political process despite the lack of Congressional voting representation and budget autonomy.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 19 Setting For studies involving human participants discuss where you will find your potential research participants. For example if you are conducting an observation in the courtyard of the Reagan building you would describe that location and environment in detail, and why it is appropriate to finding the population.. If you are recruiting from a specific government agency you would describe it briefly and then give detail about why it is an appropriate setting for recruiting your population. Population For studies involving human participants calculate and then discuss the suggested demographics and the sample size of the population. Be sure to support your population choice and then the type of sampling you will use to determine the sample (with citations). Next discuss the population’s size and the calculation of your representative sample. For example, The intended population is residents of the District of Columbia. These residents will consist of individuals of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds and races. Participants will be asked if they are 18 or older and must be at least the age of 18 to participate in the survey. Individuals under the age of 18 will not participate due to their inability to vote in local and national elections. The study is solely an examination of voting age adults. The sample size for this study is calculated based on the nearly 400,000 registered voters in the District of Columbia. The sample size is 369 participants with a 5.0% margin of error, a 95% confidence interval, and a 40% response rate. Individuals will be recruited using random sampling. Participants will be recruited at various public places,

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 20 including but not limited to, Metro stations, coffee shops, and grocery stores in all four quadrants of the city. Recruitment materials are found in Appendix A. *Data Source(s) If you are using any form of secondary data, which might include documents or other non human intervention methods you would discuss where you will find those documents, media, or other data sources and how you will determine which to include in the study. For example, in a content analysis (analysis of several documents) you might describe the data bases you will search for relevant scholarly articles, and offer some examples of search terms and criteria you will use. Then show some examples of articles you have retrieved in a list of brief annotated bibliographies. Or you might use a publicly available data set. The data might be from a data set found as a result of a search of the department of Labor statistics site or the ICPSR site. Name the research study, state why this data was developed and its purpose. Discuss the data set, the information, and the variables that will be used from that data set in your research study. Ethical Considerations There are always ethical considerations to a greater or lesser degree depending on whether or not you are using human subjects and the level of invasiveness your intervention or data collection instrument. Think them through carefully. Look at other similar studies for suggestions. Be sure to discuss what is required of the participant, what their rights are, what risks the participant might encounter, and what benefits the participant might accrue. Note also whether or not this study is approved by the BGS IRB Committee. Your readers need to know you understand your responsibilities, that you will communicate appropriately with the participants, and that your research is aligned with the BGS and Trinity IRB policies.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 21 Research Design Discuss in narrative form the detailed step by step process of how you will conduct the entire research study (the collection of your data). Think of this as the operator’s manual for your experiment that you might share with others so they can be assured that it is replicable and of the rigor of your experiment. Give a step by step how to description that another would follow to replicate your methodology. You might start by making a bulleted list in another document, and then narrate that list here in this section. It needs to have enough good detail to eliminate assumptions or the need to ask questions without becoming so granular in detail that no one will read it. It is a balancing act between too much information and not enough information. Cite the textbooks and research articles, which inform you. Creswell’s Research Design, 3rd or 4th ed. have great discussions of quantitative research methods and useful checklists. Additionally, language from Remler and Van Ryzin, Research in Practice, can be helpful. Strategy and measurement. Discuss the strategy of tests you will run in your statistical analysis program and the expected measurements to show significance, probability, strength of association, etcetera. Cite statistics texts, such as Szafran’s Answering Questions with Statistics, or research texts from your review of related research in the Literature Review. For example in a standard social sciences study a specific range of measures of significance and association are expected in tests (tables) you might run on the data. In some cases it might be appropriate to develop and test a predictive model of variables, which effect the dependent variable. In these instances you might run an ANOVA. Narrate the list the range of significance and/ or association and show them in tables. In social science research you would be expected to run tests (results in the form of tables) for: Descriptives (frequency and descriptive tables), measures of association (Cross Tabs, Correlation, Chi-square), testing the hypothesis (one sample t- test,

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 22 paired sample t- test), and tests for prediction. Any of these might look at values such as mean, difference of mean, degrees of freedom, f, Pearson’s Movement Correlation Coefficient (PMCC) (or Pearson’s r), significance (p), slope (b), beta (β), multiple correlation coefficient (R), or the coefficient of determination (R2), and many more. Please be prepared to discuss why you are using these statistics and what their values mean. These lists are not fully inclusive of the tests you should run and statistics you should calculate, so work with your faculty to determine in advance the appropriate tests to run. Be certain to discuss what the measurements indicate. For example, it is important to know what indicates a strong association, or a positive correlation. This shows that you know in advance what results you are expecting in your data (not that you know the exact results, but have a reasonable expectation). For example: Measures of association. Measures of association are a single statistic, which provides a value for the relationship (covariation) between two variables. Additionally, ordinal measures of association are able to indicate the strength of the relationship and the direction of the relationship (Szafran, 2012, p. 196). Pearson’s correlation (PMCC) is a test of the strength of association between two variables in the model. PMCC shows strong positive correlation at values of 0.5 to 1.0, and strong negative correlation at values of -1.0 to -0.5. Then follow with medium correlation, weak correlation, and no correlation. You should also offer information regarding the difference between a positive and a negative correlation. Significance (2-tailed) is another test of the strength of association between two variables in the model. Significance (2-tailed) shows strong positive correlation at values of 0.05 to 0.0, and strong negative correlation at values of 0.0

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 23 to -0.05. Then follow with medium correlation, weak correlation, and no correlation. You should also offer information regarding the difference between a positive and a negative correlation. When compared with the PMCC in the Coefficients (a) table a researcher can determine from two independent tests of the strength of association and indicates variables to investigate through further inferential analysis. Then follow with the next test and its measures… Tables of information you might find useful (in APA format) Table 1. Variables and measures Pair of variables Type of measure of association Nominal & nominal Nominal measure of association Nominal & ordinal Nominal measure of association Nominal & interval/ratio Nominal measure of association Ordinal & ordinal Ordinal measure of association Ordinal & interval/ratio Ordinal measure of association Source: Szafran instructor’s power points, chapter 8, slide 4 Table 2. Measures of association If the absolute value of a measure of association is: The association will be described as: .000 No relationship .001 to .199 Weak .200 to .399 Moderate .400 to .599 Strong .600 to .999 Very strong 1.000 Perfect relationship Source: Szafran instructor’s power points, chapter 8, slide 5 Table 3. Nominal measures of association Measures of association - Nominal Range Symmetric or Asymmetric Contingency coefficient 0.00 to approx.. 1.00 Symmetric Cramer’s V 0.00 to 1.00 Symmetric

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 24 Lambda 0.00 to 1.00 Symmetric and Asymmetric Phi In 2x2 tables = -1.00 to 1.00; in larger tables = 0.00 to approx. 1.00 Symmetric Uncertainty coefficient 0.00 to 1.00 Symmetric and Asymmetric Source: Szafran instructor’s power points, chapter 8, slide 7 Table 4. Ordinal measures of association, -1.0 to 1.0 Measures of association - Ordinal Symmetric or Asymmetric Gamma Symmetric Somer’s d Symmetric and Asymmetric Kendall’s tau-b Symmetric Kendall’s tau-c Symmetric Spearman’s correlation Symmetric Source: Szafran instructor’s power points, chapter 8, slide 10 Table 5. Equivalents of probability, fraction, and percent Probability Fraction Percent .80 4/5s, or 4 out of 5 attempts 80%, or 80 of 100 attempts .50 ½, or 1 of every 2 attempts 50%, or 50 of every 100 attempts .10 1/10, 1 of every 10 attempts 10% or 10 of every 100 attempts .05 1/20, or 1 of every 20 attempts 5%, or 5 of every 100 attempts .01 1/100, or 1 of every 100 attempts 1%, or 1 of every 100 attempts .003 3/1000, or 3 of every 1000 attempts 0.3%, or 3 of every 1000 attempts .0001 1/10,000, or 1 of every 10,000 attempts 0.01%, or 1 of every 10,000 attempts Source: Szafran (2012, p. 297) **PROTOCOLS** In the sections below you will describe your data collection instruments: how they were developed, why the types of questions were used, and the protocol for how you will administer the instruments to gather data. . For example, you might give a pre- and post-test to effect (cause a result) an increase in competencies. The intervention would be the educational seminar or training event to increase the competency. The pre- and post-tests would replace the interview or the questionnaire.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 25 Intervention Protocol Discuss the objectives of the intervention, how the intervention was developed, and how it will proceed. Then provide the supporting materials as necessary (agenda, handouts, brochures, etcetera). If you are presenting a seminar or a training event you would need to discuss how it was developed, the theories that support its use. Then discuss how you will administer the intervention. Discuss where the interaction with your subjects will take place. Survey Instrument and Protocol Discuss how the survey will be conducted and provide the supporting materials. Discuss how the survey was developed. What was the logic behind the determination of specific questions? What information might you gain from their use in your protocol? Discuss the types of questions included and the types of data they will provide. Also, be certain to give an example of each response type you might use. For example, multiple choice, fill in, true/false, yes/no, scaled response (Likert or otherwise). Creswell’s Research Design, 3rd or 4th ed. discuss direct questions, what a researcher expects for responses, and why we choose them. Additionally, language from Remler and Van Ryzin, Research in Practice, can be helpful. Further, you might refer to Schensul, Schensul, and LeCompte’s Essential Ethnographic Methods for a discussion of developing a survey instrument and administering it to your participants. Discuss where and how the interaction with your subjects will take place. If you are conducting an intervention and then a survey, describe where the interview will take place, how you have arranged the setting to ensure the appropriate level of quiet, intimacy, and privacy, and so on.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 26 Summary As always summarize the chapter to remind your audience of what was covered and to reinforce it on their memory. Then transition to the next chapter.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 27 References The references section is written with a paragraph in the hanging indent style and with a sentence space of 1.5 for improved readability. There must be a reference for every work cited, and nothing should be referenced that is not cited, in the entire document. See the APA 6th Publication Manual, chapter 7 for the appropriate reference styles for each type of source used. Your reference section should include every work cited in the paper. The reference section of an APA research paper is unlike a bibliography from other publishing styles. The reference section of this paper may only include works that you have cited in the document. You may not include items that influenced you, or are recommended reading, only include what you have actually cited. For example, Corra, M. (2009). The state of Black America: On the heels of the election of Barack Obama as the first African American President of the United States. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 33(3), 192-211. District of Columbia Board of Elections. (2013, January 9). Administrative Hearing No. 13-01 Re: Formulation of proposed charter amendment ballot language. Washington, DC. Duffy, B., Wake, R., Burrows, T., & Bremner, P. (2008). Closing the gaps: Crime and public perceptions. International Review of Law Computers & Technology, 22, 17-44. Engstrom, R. L. (1994). The voting rights act: Disfranchisement, dilution, and alternative election systems. Political Science & Politics, 685. Hartnagel, T. (1979). The perception and fear of crime: implications for neighborhood cohesion, social activity, and community affect. Social Forces (University Of North Carolina Press), 176-193. Lanning, K. (2008). Democracy, voting, and disenfranchisement in the United States: A social psychological perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 64(3), 431-446.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 28 Appendices For one appendix, please label as a chapter with a first level heading Appendix. Then title the document with a subsection heading. For multiple appendices please label as a chapter with a first level heading Appendices. Then label each appended document with a first level heading, Appendix A with the title of the document as a subsection heading, Appendix B subsection heading, and so on with a page break between each Appended document. Sample of a single appendix: Appendix Document Title Then place the document below. Sample of a multiple appendices: Sample of an appendix with multiple sections Appendices Appendix A: Document Title Then place the document below. Add a page break. Appendix B: Document Title Then place the document below. Add a page break. And so on.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 29 Appendix A: Recruitment Materials: English October …… 2013 Dear Parents/ Guardians: My name is ____________________ and I am a graduate student at Trinity Washington University. I am studying Health Administration with a focus on Public and Community Health Management. I am sending this letter to explain why I would like you to participate in my research study. While many parents have a great deal of influence over how their children diet and exercise while young; this study will provide you with health and dietary information to benefit you and your family’s lifestyle. I am studying whether parental health education can help increase health understanding, behaviors, attitudes and beliefs about childhood obesity. The research study will only include parents of children in grades Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten. With your permission; I will ask you to complete a 25 questioned survey, next I will provide you with daily useful health educational materials about improving your child’s healt h and physical activity, to reduce childhood obesity and finally I will ask you to re-take the initial survey for understanding. The survey would take about 20 minutes. The survey and all health information will be provided in English and Spanish. Your participation in this study is completely voluntary and is not associated with ___________ Elementary School or the District of Columbia Public School System and will not affect you or your rights in any way. You may quit this study at any time, by simply writing on the survey “I want to stop” or “I do not wish to participate.” The study will be conducted beginning the week of October …, 2013 through October …., 2013. The first survey will be provided to you during the drop off / pick up times and again during the Parent Wellness meeting. There are minimal risks involved; this study will be used for education purposed only, as I seek to gain better understand of parental health education and how health promotions can benefit schools.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 30 To protect your confidentiality, your name will not appear on the survey, I will only use data and results from the survey, without including your name. This survey will not be shared with anyone other than myself, __________________ (student researcher) and my Professor Dr. _______________, at Trinity Washington University. If you have any questions or if you would like to receive a final copy of this research study after completion, please feel free to contact me at (202) 884-9620. This letter will serve as a consent form for your participation and will be kept in my personal locked file for a minimal of three years after completion of the study. If you have any questions about this research, please call Dr. ________________, my research supervisor for this project or the School of Business and Graduate Studies at Trinity Washington University at (202) 884-9620. Please return this form to Ms. Student directly by October ……., 2013. Sincerely An Eager Student

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 31 Appendix B: Recruitment Materials: Español Octubre …… 2013 Queridos Guardas de Padres/: Me llamo el _________________ y yo somos un estudiante de graduado en la Trinidad Universidad de Washington. Estudio la Administración de Salud con un foco en la Dirección de Salud de Comunidad y Público. Envío esta carta para explicar por qué me gustaría usted participar en mi estudio de investigación. Mientras muchos padres tienen mucha influencia como su dieta de niños y ejercicio mientras joven; este estudio le proveerá de salud e información alimenticia para beneficiar usted y el estilo de vida de su familia. Estudio si la educación sanitaria paternal puede ayudar a aumentar entendimiento de salud, comportamientos, actitudes y creencia con la obesidad de infancia. El estudio de investigación sólo incluirá a padres de niños en Prejardín de infancia de grados y Jardín de infancia. Con su permiso; le pediré completar una 25 revisión preguntada, después le proveeré de la salud útil diaria materiales educativos sobre el mejoramiento de salud de su niño y actividad física, reducir la obesidad de infancia y finalmente le pediré volver a tomar la revisión inicial para el entendimiento. La revisión tomaría aproximadamente 20 minutos. La revisión y toda la información de salud serán proporcionadas en inglés y español. Su participación en este estudio es completamente voluntaria y no tiene que ver con _____________ Elementary School o el Público de District of Columbia el Sistema Escolar y no afectará usted o sus derechos de ningún modo. Usted puede dejar este estudio en cualquier momento, por simplemente escribiendo en la revisión “quiero pararme” “o no deseo participar.” El estudio será conducido comenzando la semana de Octubre …, 2013 en Octubre., 2013. La primera revisión le será proporcionada durante la gota lejos / recogen tiempos y otra vez durante la reunión de Salud Paternal. Hay riesgos mínimos implicados; este estudio será usado para la educación intentan sólo, cuando procuro adelantar mejor entienden de la educación sanitaria paternal y como las promociones de salud pueden beneficiar escuelas. Para proteger su confidencialidad, su nombre no aparecerá en la revisión, voy a datos sólo usados y resultados de la revisión, sin la inclusión de su nombre. Esta revisión no será

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 32 compartida con nadie además de mí, Sotavento-________________ (investigador de estudiante) y mi Madera de Profesor doctor ___________, en la Trinidad Universidad de Washington. Si usted tiene alguna pregunta o si le gustara recibir una copia final de este estudio de investigación después de la finalización, por favor siéntase libre de ponerse en contacto conmigo en (202) 884-9620. Esta carta servirá como una forma de consentimiento para su participación y será guardada en el archivo cerrado con llave de mi personal durante un mínimo de tres años después de la finalización del estudio. Si usted tiene alguna pregunta sobre esta investigación, por favor llame doctor __________________, el profesor de este proyecto o la Escuela de Estudios Profesionales en la Trinidad Universidad de Washington en (202) 884-9620. Por favor devuelva esta forma a __________________ directamente hacia octubre., 2013. Sinceramente, An Eager Student

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 33 Appendix C: Informed Consent Form Informed Consent Form, page 1 Title of your Research Study I would like to invite you to participate in a research study examining _______________________________________________, which will add to the knowledge related to ________________________________________. My name is ________________________________ and the data collected in this interview will help fulfill the requirements for a Master of Science in Administration in _________________________________________ at Trinity Washington University. I am under the supervision of my faculty advisor Dr. ____________________. Participation Requires of You: To (describe what they will do, i.e. to be interviewed, to complete the survey, etcetera) ____________________________________________________. There is no planned use of deception involved in this study. Your Privacy: Your participation in this study and your responses will be kept confidential. Any reference to you will be by pseudonym, including any direct quotes from your responses. This document and any notes or recordings that might personally identify you as a participant in this study will be kept in a locked place that only the researcher will have access to. Only the researcher and the research supervisor might know who has participated in this study. Three years after the completion of this research study all personally identifying information will be destroyed. Risks to you: There are five acknowledged risks generally associated with participation in research studies such as this one: Physical, psychological, social, economic, and legal. The researcher foresees minimal risk for those who choose to participate in this study. There are no foreseen physical risks associated with this study; other risks might include the following: You might experience anxiety, discomfort, or negative emotions as a result of responding to the questions asked of them in this research study. If you experience a negative reaction, you may choose to skip the question, to withdraw from the study, or you may contact my faculty advisor or the BGS Institutional Review Board, especially if your discomfort continues after the study. See the contact information on the page below. You might experience social, economic, or legal implications if you share your responses or your participation in this study with others. If you choose to participate in this study, you are encouraged to keep your participation in this study and your responses confidential. The researcher will maintain your confidentiality throughout the study, and will destroy the records of your participation three years after the study is complete. Benefits to You: There are not foreseen direct benefits to you regarding participation in this study beyond the general knowledge that you are assisting in furthering the knowledge related to this research topic, and assisting the researcher in completing the MSA degree requirements. There is no compensation associated with participation in this study.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 34 Informed Consent Form, page 2 Title of your Research Study This document acknowledges you understand of your rights as a participant in this study, which the researcher has explained to you prior to signing this document. I acknowledge that the researcher has explained my rights, the requirements of this study, and the potential risks involved in participating in this study. I understand there is no compensation for, or direct benefit of participating in this study. By signing below and providing my contact information I am indicating that I consent to participate in this study, that I am at least 18 years of age, and I am eligible to participate in this study. You may withdraw from this study at any time by notifying me by email. If you have any concerns regarding your participation in this research study you may contact my faculty advisor, Dr. ______________________, or the BGS IRB committee. You may ask for a copy of this document for your own records. Signed Name: _____________________________________________ Date: _______________ Printed Name: _____________________________________ Phone Number, Email Address, or Postal Address: ____________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Thank you for your participation, Student’s name MSA in ___________________ Trinity Washington University Email Address: @students.trinitydc.edu Dr. ________________________ MSA Program Trinity Washington University @mail address: @trinitydc.edu (202) 884-9620 BGS Institutional Review Board Committee (202) 884-9620, or Email BGS@TrinityDC.edu with BGS IRB in the subject line. The BGS Institutional Review Board (IRB) oversees the ethical practice of research involving human participants conducted by students of the trinity Washington University School of Business and Graduate Studies.

RESEARCH PAPER SAMPLE 2 Appendix D: Survey Instrument Insert an MS Word friendly version of your survey or questionnaire here. This should be all the questions included and the text should be exact as it was reviewed and approved by the IRB committee. *Note that if you copy directly from Google Forms or Survey Monkey you will bring many macros and other security issues with the text and then you will cause security issues in working with your document for the Trinity BGS Faculty. This survey needs only the text and images necessary for the faculty and the IRB committee to review, it does not need to be exact in format and font.

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