Preliminary Notes For Teachers Asia Education Foundation

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Preliminary notes for Teachers: The Indonesian readers here comprise 30 passages, organised in 6 broad themes: Dunia Saya, Kehidupan Sehari-hari, Makanan & Kesehatan, Agama & Kepercayaan, Dunia Manusia, and Lingkungan Kita. Within each theme, there are 5 passages, ranked from easiest to hardest. Because some themes are conceptually more complex than others, the degree of difficulty may vary from theme to theme. For example, the passages in Dunia Saya are generally pitched at lower year levels, whereas those in Lingkungan Kita are generally aimed at higher year levels within the middle school. No claims are made here about a particular passage being exclusively suited to a particular level of instruction: teachers will need to identify those passages which best suit their learners’ needs and backgrounds. This Guide provides a brief overview of each passage, with some examples of the vocabulary, structures and topics found. It has not been possible to list here all the words found in all the passages, however, so teachers will need to familiarise themselves beforehand with such items. The passages themselves contain some assistance with vocabulary. When the cursor is held on certain words for a couple of seconds, they change colour and a vocabulary rollover appears. Again, it has not been possible to tag each and every word in this way, but hopefully enough are supported to allow learners to keep reading without the need to ask the teacher for help at every turn. A note on navigation: To encourage interaction, the storyline in a number of passages will progress only if the learner clicks on a Hot Spot, indicated by a change in the cursor icon. For instance, Legenda Loro Jonggrang, Perkawinan Adat Jawa and Berkunjung ke Waterbom Park require the learner to click on the Hand Icon to take the passage a ste\p further, before moving to a new screen (which is accessible by clicking on the conventional “next” button, represented by a blue triangular arrow in the bottom right corner.) If the blue arrow does not appear on screen, it means there is something else on the current screen still to be accomplished first. A note on personal pronouns: The question of which second person pronoun to use is one which frequently confronts Indonesian teachers. Most of the time we have opted to use kamu, where it is felt that the learners are likely to be younger. Sometimes, however, Anda is used when the learners are likely to be older, or the relationship is less personal in nature. Themes: 1. Dunia Saya (My World) 2. Kehidupan Sehari-hari (Everyday Life) 3. Makanan & Kesehatan (Food & Health) 4. Agama & Kepercayaan (Religion & Beliefs) 5. Dunia Manusia (Built World) 16. Lingkungan Kita (Our Environment)

DUNIA SAYA (= MY WORLD) SIAPA SAYA KAMAR SAYA KELUARGA SAYA BERBELANJA YUK! KE RUMAH EDI Siapa Saya? = Who Am I? Summary: An on-line questionnaire, which asks students about themselves, and captures the information they provide in a paragraph-long description at the end. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Personal information such as name (nama), age (umur), where they live (tempat tinggal), hair colour (warna rambut), eye colour (warna mata), height (tinggi), siblings (kakak atau adik) pets (binatang piaraan), parents’ birthplace ( bapak/ibu lahir di negeri apa/mana), hobbies (hobi) and religion (agama). Structures: Basic questions and answers: Content questions: Siapa nama kamu? Berapa umurmu/tinggi kamu? Di mana kamu tinggal? Ibu/Bapak lahir di negeri apa/mana? Note that both of these structures are equally correct and common ways of asking about the country of one’s birthplace. Apa nama kota/daerah kamu? Apa warna rambutmu/matamu? Apa hobi kamu/agamamu? Yes/No questions: Apa kamu punya kakak/adik/binatang piaraan? 2

Culture: Asking for personal information of this kind in Indonesia is quite common; sometimes people ask us questions we would not expect to be asked in Australia. Activities: Text entry – filling in electronic forms. • • • • • Multiple-choice - selection of information appropriate to learner. In-class Ideas: Students work in pairs to interview each other about basic personal information. Students write a paragraph about themselves or a friend, based on the model provided. Teacher describes a fictitious character to the class; students then enter the appropriate information about that person, and can check whether their final paragraph is correct. Kamar Saya = My Room Summary: Learners are asked to help arrange the furniture in a girl’s bedroom, to make the bed, to locate some items from the wardrobe, to tidy up the desk, and arrange books on the bookshelf. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Names of items of furniture (tempat tidur, lemari, meja belajar, rak buku), bedding (sprei, bantal, guling), clothing (baju, celana pendek, topi, sepatu), personal items (mainan, komputer, raket tenis) Spatial nouns and adjectives: di bawah, di kaki, kiri, kanan Some colours: hitam, jingga Structures: Identificational clauses: Ini kamar tidur/tempat tidur/lemari pakaian/meja belajar/rak buku saya. Instructions: Coba bantu saya… Letakkan… Pasang… Tolong ambilkan…. Atur…. 3

Activities: Drag and drop – moving items to locations on screen in accordance wit\h instructions • • • • Hot spots – selecting the correct items In-class Ideas: Teacher gives instructions to students to place items in various locations around the room Selecting and grouping according to colour/size/alphabet Keluarga Saya = My Family Summary: A description of Heru and Melati’s family members, their relationships and occupations. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Basic family relationships: keluarga, ibu, bapak, anak, kakak, adik, kakek, nenek, cucu Occupations: pegawai bank, ibu rumah tangga, guru, polisi, pensiun, pembantu Structures: Simple equational clauses with adalah linking subject and predicate: Melati adalah seorang perempuan. Dia adalah adik Heru. Simple intransitive and transitive clauses describing the family members: Dia berumur delapan tahun; Dia memakai baju berwarna ungu. Culture: Note that the family unit in Indonesia is often extended to include grandparents. Note the presence of a maid (pembantu) to assist with housework. Activities: Text entry – type in the correct name according to a given description • • • • • Drag and drop – family tree True/False questions about the family members In-class Ideas: Students describe their own family relationships Locate the individuals on a family tree, according to a given description 4

Berbelanja, Yuk! = Let’s Go Shopping Summary: Students are invited to go shopping to different destinations – a supermarket, a bookshop, a department store and a traditional market. In each location they have to select certain items and calculate the correct payment and change. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Grocery items: roti, sabun mandi, sikat gigi, etc. Stationery items: pena,penggaris, buku komik, etc Clothing items: celana pendek, baju kaus, pita rambut, etc. Fruit and vegetables: pisang, apel, nanas, etc Structures: Suggestion: Mari berbelanja dengan saya ke…. Instructions: Kita harus membeli….. Questions: Berapa harga …..? Berapa kamu harus membayar? Berapa uang kembaliannya? Culture: Note the various denominations of Indonesian money, notes and coins. Exchange rate varies, but at the beginning of 2004, $1 = Rp.6000 approximately. Activities: Hot spots – clicking on names of the items purchased; clicking on the correct money • • • • • In-class Ideas: Have a game where various items in a category have to be selected. Rank and group items according to different dimensions – e.g. size, type, colour, price, source. Students do simple calculations to add up the prices of items in a shopping basket, and work out the total, and the correct amount of change to be given. Play “the price is right” with 3-4 groups of students competing to guess the correct prices of various items. Teacher can nudge them towards the correct answer with hints of “lebih” or “kurang”. 5

Ke Rumah Edi = Going to Edi’s Summary: Edi couldn’t attend school today because he was sick. One of Edi’s classmates decides to visit him, but on the way has to post a parcel at the Post Office, before later calling in to the library to get some books for Edi, and then buying some fruit for him. On the way he has to follow certain directions and negotiate certain types of transportation. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Basic directions: belok, kiri, kanan, lurus, lewat... Types of transport: becak, angkot Place names: kantor pos, sekolah, mesjid Some simple descriptive adjectives with prefix ber- (= to have): berwarna, berambut Structures: Simple SVO patterns with common auxiliaries akan, mau, harus – e.g. Saya harus naik ankgot ; Saya akan mencari buku untuk dia ; Saya mau membeli buah Simple commands: Ke kantor pos dan kirimkan paket ini untuk nenek. Activities: Hot spots – clicking on the correct image in response to clues and in\structions • • • • • Drag and drop – moving items in the post office in accordance with directions In-class Ideas: Students follow directions on a map Students role-play posting a letter or parcel at the post office, incorporating structures from the passage Students try to correctly identify a secret item following a 3-hint quiz 6

KEHIDUPAN SEHARI-HARI = EVERYDAY LIFE AYO DONO! SEHARI DI SEKOLAH MATEMATIKA MONYET CITA-CITA AGEN RAHASIA Ayo Dono! = Come on, Dono! Summary: It’s 8 a.m. and Dono is still in bed. He’s going to be late for school. But before he leaves, he has to eat, bathe, and get dressed. Can you help him? Topics and Key Vocabulary: Basic phrases: Apa kabar? Terima kasih. Verbs indicating daily routine: bangun, tidur, makan pagi, mandi Auxiliaries: sudah, belum, mau, harus Days of the week Jangan lupa…. Structures: Simple clauses with auxiliaries: Dono harus pergi ke kamar mandi; Dono mau tidur lagi. Simple transitive meN- verbs in declarative clauses: Dono belum memakai seragam sekolah; Dono harus mengambil tas sekolah. Simple imperatives with transitive verbs: Before embarking on this passage, students will need to be taught how to remove the meN- prefix and retrieve the correct root verb for use in commands, e.g.: Pakai seragam sekolah! Ambil tas sekolah! Note that some words (e.g. makan, minum) do not change when used in imperatives. Activities: Text entry: Remember, transitive verbs lose the meN- prefix: so in response to the clue Dono belum menggosok gigi, learners need to enter the instruction to Dono: Ayo Dono, jangan lupa gosok gigi • In-class Ideas: Class discussion: What activities do students have to do before they leave for school? In what order? • 7

Concentration game with cards, matching roots with meN- verbs. • Identifying the correct root from meN- verbs; e.g. teacher says “memakai” , students have to give correct response “pakai” • Sehari di Sekolah = A Day at School Summary: Jenny attends school in Australia, Tini in Indonesia. The passage deals with the times school starts and finishes, what days they attend school, their subjects auniforms. nd • • • • • • Topics and Key Vocabulary: Basic times: jam berapa, jam tujuh Basic numbers Days of the week Daily routine: e.g. bangun, makan pagi, pergi ke sekolah, belajar School subjects: e.g. bahasa Inggris, kesenian, ilmu pengetahuan alam Uniforms and colours: SD- merah & putih, SMP – biru & putih, SMA – abu-abu & putih Structures: Basic clauses: Jenny bangun pada jam 6 pagi. Simple connectives: Setelah makan pagi dan mandi, dia berangkat naik bis. Basic questions: Tini pergi ke sekolah pada hari apa? Culture: The Indonesian school day begins and ends earlier than in Australia, and the school week there includes Saturdays. Different levels of schooling are indicated by different uniform colours. Activities: Hot spots – select the correct time/age/class Text entry – names of subjects Colour in school uniforms In-class Ideas: Students relate their school day routine. What days are what subjects taught? Students design a new uniform. 8

Matematika Monyet = Monkey Maths • • • • Summary: Students are invited to refresh their number skills with some counting exercises (from 1-10, from 10-0, from 11-20, in tens up to 100), to test themselves against the clock with some simple arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division), and finally to apply their mathematical knowledge to some problem-solving situations. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Whole numbers 1-100 Arithmetical functions: tambah, kurang, kali, dibagi Numerical classifiers: orang, ekor, buah, biji Structures: Instructions: Coba menghitung….. Coba pecahkan…. A + A sama dengan 2A Activities: Hot spots (screens 1-4) – click on numbers in the correct sequence – a perfect score is rewarded by the monkey performing a trick. Text entry (screens 5-9) – after clicking in the centre box to begin, learners need to click in the small box at the bottom of the screen, and then enter the correct answer using the number keys found on the top line of the keyboard (not the numbers from the numeric keypad!) The clock on the top right of screen keeps time – learners have 5-6 seconds in which to enter the correct answer. A perfect score results in a screen animation. In-class Ideas: Students count up and down in 2’s, 3’s, 4’s and 5’s Students solve arithmetical problems 9

Cita-cita = Ambitions Summary: A tongue-in-cheek computer simulated activity where students have their preferences matched against various criteria in the search for the job they are most suited to. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Names of occupations: pemain musik, tukang masak, pemandu wisata, dokter hewan Words indicating preferences: Anda suka pada; ingin menjadi apa? Interaction with the computer program: Komputer kami masih memerlukan sedikit informasi lagi; Urutkan daftar ini….: Susun gambar-gambar ini menurut; Tunggu sebentar….. Structures: A range of intermediate-level statements, questions and commands requiring students to make selections, indicate preferences and input simple data. Activities: Text entry – name and age • • • • • • • Drag and drop – arrange occupations in order of importance Multiple choice – select the ones of interest Ranking preferences Hot spot – select items of interest In-class Ideas: Discuss which jobs students find most and least interesting/relevant/lucrative. Match students’ personalities and preferences with different occupations. 10

Agen Rahasia = Secret Agent Summary: Students have undertaken a mission to find the secret code, needed to open a safe containing an important message. To accomplish this, they need to make a series of phone calls in order to discover vital clues. • • • Topics and Key Vocabulary: Numbers Instructions: Kamu harus mencari kode rahasia; Berhati-hatilah!; Susunlah ketiga petunjuk itu dengan benar. Structures: A range of intermediate-level statements and commands requiring students to dial telephone numbers and input simple data. Activities: Hot spots – key in the correct phone numbers Text entry – type the clues in the correct boxes In-class Ideas: Students work together to construct a “Mission Impossible” type scenario – making instructions, hiding clues, and giving feedback. 11

MAKANAN & KESEHATAN = FOOD & HEALTH MAKANAN SEHAT BADAN SAYA DI RESTORAN RESEP OLAHRAGA Makanan Sehat = Healthy Diet Summary: Teacher asks the children in the class what they had for breakfast and lunch. Not everybody has a healthy diet! And when the children ask the teacher what she eats, there are more issues raised. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Names of food and drinks: roti panggang, sayur-sayuran, nasi, ikan, kue Verbs associated with eating and drinking: makan, minum Pronoun: kalian ‘you’ used for group address. Structures: Simple questions and answers: Ibu makan apa untuk makan pagi, makan siang dan makan malam?; Saya makan sebuah pisang.; Apa Ibu tidak lapar? Culture: Contrary to stereotypes, not all Indonesians eat rice for every meal. But for Australians, fried rice for breakfast might be heavy going. Activities: Drag and drop – match the right food with the right person • • • • In-class Ideas: Interview other class members to find out what people had for breakfast and dinner. Classify food items according to their nutritional value. Discussion question: should body image influence diet? 12

Badan Saya = My Body Summary: A look at body parts and their various functions, through the eyes of a baby. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Parts of the body: kepala, mata, tangan, mulut, kaki, perut, pantat, etc. Verbs associated with body functions: melihat, mencium, minum, menjerit, menangis, memegang Some animal names: semut, laba-laba, kucing, ikan gurita Common household items: boneka, bantal, mainan Use of ada: Misalnya ada kaki. Masing-masing ada lima jari kaki. Use of punya: Saya punya dua tangan. Structures: Simple intransitive and transitive sentences describing body parts and what they do. Conditional clauses with kalau: Kalau lapar, perut saya keroncongan. Many verbs with meN- prefix: merasa, melihat, menggigit, mendengar Activities: Text entry – how many legs do these animals have? • • • • • • Drag and drop – move the right name to the appropriate body part Matching hot spots – association of body parts and functions In-class Ideas: Songs about parts of the body. Simon says: Coba pegang [kaki/hidung/rambut...] Anda! Teacher prepares a list of verbs – students to link these with the appropriate part of the body. 13

Di Restoran = At a Restaurant Summary: Join the Mochtar family on their outing to the Rumah Makan “Sido Mampir”. Students help serve the food and drinks ordered, and assist in calculating the bill afterwards. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Phrases used in restaurants: Silakan masuk/duduk. Mau minum apa? Boleh melihat daftar makanan? Saya mau…..; Mau tambah lagi?; Sudah kenyang. Food menu includes authentic dishes such as: bakmi goreng, sate ayam, lontong sayur, etc. Drinks menu includes authentic offerings such as: jus buah, es teler, jeruk panas, etc. Structures: Short conversational interchanges relating to ordering the food and paying the bill. Culture: Students can see photos of the authentic Indonesian dishes and drinks on the menu. Activities: Drag and drop – move the right food and drinks to the person who ordered them; complete the bill; structure conversation • • • • • Hot spot – click on the correct amount of money In-class Ideas: Students role play diners and waiters. Students create their own menu for a new restaurant. Students calculate the bill. 14

Resep = Recipes Summary: Students are introduced to a number of basic ingredients in an Indonesian kitchen, before participating in making a deliciously sweet Javanese snack called “klepon”. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Basic ingredients: cabe, gula, gula merah, kelapa, terasi “Taste” adjectives: pedas, manis, enak Verbs indicating preparation and cooking processes: dipotong, dituangkan, digulung, diambil Structures: Note the use of passive verbs in the procedural discourse of a recipe. Where in English we say “Boil the water”, Indonesian communicates the instruction with a statement: “The water is boiled”. This is a feature of procedural discourses generally. Culture: Different cultures, different tastes, Australians probably react to terasi in much the same way that Indonesians evaluate Vegemite. The recipe described in the passage is an easy one, which can be attempted by teachers and students. Activities: Hot spots – click on the correct ingredients • • • • Drag and drop – move the right verb to the noun; match images with descriptions In-class Ideas: Try cooking an Indonesian dish in class – the ingredients are not too hard to find if you have access to an Asian supermarket. Students can describe some simple recipes (e.g. scrambled eggs and toast) – encourage the use of passive voice in outlining the steps involved. 15

Olahraga = Sports Summary: This passage looks at the advantages of sport, sports and scores, sporting statistics, the Olympics, and compares some popular Australian and Indonesian sports. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Names of various sports: sepak bola, bola basket, berenang, angkat besi Activities: bermain, berlatih, menonton, menang, etc Structures: A range of connected discourse describing the merits of sport, and the popularity of badminton in Indonesia. Particular focus in the final exercise on actor nouns with pe- and peN-, derived from ber- and meN- verbs: e.g. perenang ‘swimmer’ from berenang ‘to swim’, pelatih ‘coach’ from melatih ‘to train’. Culture: The immense popularity of soccer is depicted in an adaptation of an Indonesian newspaper cartoon. Indonesia’s prowess in badminton, with several Olympic medal winners, is a source of great national pride. Activities: Text entry – questions about Olympics • • • • • • • Multiple choice – badminton quiz Drag and drop – match sports with scores and statistics In-class Ideas: Students can list sports in terms of popularity in different countries. Teams debate topics such as the advantages of team versus individual sports; I hate sport vs. I love sport; participation vs. spectating; amateur vs. professional. Discussion point: why do some countries dominate in a particular sport? Kalau saya menjadi juara……, saya akan……… 16

AGAMA & KEPERCAYAAN = RELIGION & BELIEFS CERITA HANTU LEGENDA LORO JONGGRANG SURAT DARI JAWA TENGAH PERKAWINAN ADAT JAWA ISLAM Cerita Hantu Dari Jawa = Ghost Stories from Java Summary: • • • • • This passage introduces four supernatural beings from the Javanese spirit world: kuntilanak, tuyul, genderuwo and banaspati. Then follows an account of one young man’s encounter with a ghost late one night whilst selling noodles on the side of the road. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Words dealing with supernatural phenomena: hantu, berwujud, raksasa, kuburan, mengganggu, menakutkan, malam hari Descriptions: berupa bola api, kepala gundul, rambut panjang, wajah pucat Use of konon ‘it is said that’ – this word features in narratives where popular knowledge is being invoked Structures: A range of intermediate-level sentences describing supernatural beings, and a simple narrative about Jono’s experience. Culture: Note the very real belief in the spirit world possessed by many Indonesians. Nearly everybody in Java can tell you a story about a ghost. Activities: Drag and drop – move the descriptions to the correct images Multiple choice and true/false quiz based on the story Sequencing information – put the sentences in the correct chronological order In-class Ideas: Class discussion: Do you believe in ghosts? Relate a hair-raising experience you have had. 17

Legenda Loro Jonggrang = The Legend of Loro Jonggrang Summary: The well-known Javanese story of Loro Jonggrang, whose statue may be seen in the famous temple at Prambanan, is presented here interactively. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Nouns identifying personalities from the legend: putri, raja, kesatria, candi, jin, patung Verbs: jatuh cinta, ingin menikah, melamar, membuat candi, membakar sawah, membangunkan ayam, berhenti bekerja Adjectives: cantik, sakti, khawatir, kecewa Structures: Many short, concise clauses capturing the essence of the story and supported by images. Culture: This legend is part of the mystique surrounding Candi Prambanan, and invokes historical impressions of the ancient kingdoms of Java. Activities: The passage contains many hot spots, which students have to find and click on in order for the story to proceed. • • • In-class Ideas: Students could perform the story of Loro Jonggrang as a short play, involving many parts. Discussion: The legend of Loro Jonggrang may be seen as an explanation of the statue of the female in Candi Prambanan. Do we have any places in Australia whose origin is explained by some myth or legend? 18

Surat Dari Jawa Tengah = Temple Letters from Java • • • • Summary: A series of postcards and letters from a boy to his grandfather gives some basic information about various temples in Central Java (Borobudur, Prambanan, Gedung Songo and Sambisari) as well as the cultural centre of Yogyakarta, and the Hindu epic Ramayana. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Words describing temples: candi, dibangun, dipugar, abad ke…, ditemukan Letter-writing formulae: Kakek sayang; surat singkat dari….; Salam dari…. Structures: Short connected descriptions of the above topics utilise simple clauses Three different uses of ter- in the passage: terletak ‘located’ (passive state), terbesar ‘biggest’ (superlative), terkubur ‘buried’ (accidental, beyond subject’s control) Culture: This passage reinforces Central Java’s reputation as a prime historical and cultural location in Indonesia. Activities: Multiple-choice quiz based on information presented Drag and drop – match descriptions with the right temple In-class Ideas: Write a letter or postcard to a friend about an interesting place you have visited. Discussion: Are old buildings interesting? Important? Worth preserving? Why (not)? 19

Perkawinan Adat Jawa = A Javanese Wedding Summary: This passage is an account of an actual wedding between an Indonesian woman and her Australian husband. The ceremony described here follows Javanese tradition and shows the Australian family members participating fully in the rituals. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Wedding vocabulary: upacara, undangan, surat kawin, hadiah, menikah, janji, tamu, keluarga, pesta, akad nikah, berpakaian adat, pengantin Items of Javanese clothing/costume: kain, kebaya, blangkon, keris, etc Structures: Intermediate-level questions and statements pertaining to the topic. Culture: This passage is rich in authenticity, showing some of the rituals associated with a Javanese wedding as well as the more obvious elements such as traditional costumes. Activities: Text entry –responding to questions about the wedding invitation; names of articles of traditional clothing • • • • • • Drag and drop – help dress the groom in traditional costume Hot spots – identifying wedding presents In-class Ideas: Students can practise using names of items of clothing and other paraphernalia (e.g. payung, topi helm, pedang), by putting on the items on a blank figure in correct order. Discussion: what are the key elements in an Australian wedding ceremony? In what ways does the Javanese wedding depicted here differ from an Australian one? Invite an Indonesian visitor to come and talk about some different rituals – e.g. welcoming a new baby. 20

Islam Summary: This passage provides a basic ito some of the principles and practices of Islam. It deals with some of the more obvious and superficial aspects such as greetings, mosques, and clothing, as well as offering some information about prayer, fasting and the pilgrimage. ntroduction • • • • • • Topics and Key Vocabulary: Before utilising this passage with students, teachers are advised to familiarise themselves thoroughly with the terms and significance of the practices mentioned. Inevitably the vocabulary contained here is quite large, and different from “ordinary” Indonesian in that much of it derives from Arabic. Vocabulary domains found here include: Greetings (salam) : assalamu alaikum Mosques (masjid or mesjid – note the variation frequently encountered when Arabic words enter Indonesian) Prayer (salat or shalat or sholat) : bersembahayang, subuh, lohor, asar, magrib, isya, kiblat, wudhu or wudu or wudlu Religious schools (pesantren): al-Quran, ustad Clothing: jilbab, mukenah, peci, sarung Fasting: puasa, Lebaran, Idul Fitri Pilgrimmage: naik haji Structures: Mostly simple sentences, some with connectives (e.g. kalau, sebelum…) are used to present the content here. It may appear more difficult because much of the vocabulary and the concepts introduced are new to learners. A potential focus on meN- verbs in the section on ablutions (wudu): mencuci tangan, membasuh muka, membersihkan telinga Culture: For many learners in Australian classrooms, the cultural content encountered here will be totally new. Activities: Multiple choice – identify correct places of worship, comprehension quiz on Lebaran Text entry – items of clothing Drag and drop – names of prayer times, ritual ablutions Hot spots – various locations in the grand mosque in Mecca In-class Ideas: To reinforce vocabulary, have students new terms with topics. Discuss different religious practices – how do you practice your religion? 21

DUNIA MANUSIA = THE BUILT WORLD RUMAH SAYA DI KOTA SAYA RUMAH APA YANG ANDA SUKAI MARI BERMAIN DENGAN PETA BERKUNJUNG KE WATERBOM PARK Rumah Saya = My House • • • • • • Summary: Learners take a tour of an Australian house and learn the names of rooms, furniture and common household items. There are some comparisons with Indonesian houses. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Names of rooms: kamar tamu, dapur, kamar mandi Furniture and household effects: kursi, meja, lampu, pintu, lemari, bantal, kompor Structures: Basically single clause sentences: Identificational clauses: Ini kamar tidur saya. Presentative clauses with ada: Ada bantal yang panjang. Yes/No questions: Apakah ini kamar mandi atau dapur? Culture: Note the differences between Indonesian and Australian kitchens, bathrooms and toilets. In bedrooms, one finds guling ‘bolsters’. Activities: Hot spot – click on the correct item of furniture Drag and drop – household items to the correct room Text entry – names of rooms in the house Tour of house following audio cues In-class Ideas: Students draw a floor plan of their own house and label the rooms. Match activities (verbs) with the rooms they are normally conducted in (e.g. menonton tv, memasak, belajar, mandi) 22

Class discussion: different ways of bathing between Indonesia and Australia, different types of toilets, different kitchens. • Di Kota Saya = In My Town Summary: Learners take an interactive tour of some of the main features in a typical Indonesian town, followed by an exercise in correctly locating some shops and buildings. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Names of buildings and facilities: kantor pos, terminal bis, kolam renang, bioskop, lapangan tenis, stasiun kereta api Compass points: utara, timur laut, timur, tenggara, selatan, barat daya, barat , barat laut Telling the time: jam empat, jam setengah sepuluh Money calculations: Berapa rupiah harus saya bayar untuk mengirimkan tiga surat? Structures: Mostly simple but some conjoined sentences. Use of ada + locational phrases Expressing preferences: Saya suka/senang ….. Culture: Some interesting differences in the way transport works (e.g. crowded b\uses). A rail map of Java. Use of compass points as a common way of referring to locations in Indonesia. Activities: Hot spot – link the correct towns on the railway line • • • • • • Drag and drop – give correct money at the post office Text entry – enter names of films In-class Ideas: Draw a sketch of your town or neighbourhood, listing the key places you visit – e.g. sekolah, perpustakaan, bisokop, lapangan olahraga, pusat perbelanjaan Describe your favourite places in 3-5 short sentences. Learn the “Compass Song” :Timur, tenggara, selatan, barat daya, barat , barat laut utara, timur laut. Then play a game where people have to move in accordance with instructions: Pindah dua langah ke……barat! 23

Rumah Apa Yang Anda Sukai? = What house do you like? Summary: This passage introduces learners to some of the variety of Indonesian architectural styles with a glimpse of traditional houses from the Minangkabau, Karo Batak and Toraja regions. Learners are then invited to build some houses according to instructions. Finally, the passage looks at some modern dwellings. Topics and Key Vocabulary: House components and materials: atap, tiang, dinding, tangga, tembok, kayu, ijuk Descriptions: panjang, mirip tanduk kerbau, dihiasi dengan ukiran, mirip perahu Structures: Attributive and descriptive noun phrases: rumah adat, rumah modern, rumah Toraja Passive verbs: dibuat dari…., dibangun, dihiasi dengan…., disebut Culture: Note the variety found in different regions of Indonesia, and the significance of the different architectural shapes (e.g. resembling buffalo horns, or boats) Activities: Hot spot – identify correct parts of houses • • • • • • Drag and drop – construct a traditional house according to directions Text entry – identifying houses from different regions In-class Ideas: Students draw, label and describe some typical western architectural features. Discussion points: Why are the traditional Indonesian houses seen here so large? What does that tell us about the social organisation of the people there? Describe a house of the future – what new materials, shapes and purposes will it have? 24

Mari Bermain Dengan Peta = Interactive Map Summary: Learners have to find their way to Bu Astuti’s house, according to the narrator’s instructions. Different forms of transport are used, and have to be paid for. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Directional vocabulary: depan, ujung, kiri, kanan, jauh, dekat Numbers – up to teens and tens Simple money transactions Transport terms: bis, becak, kondektur Structures: Inviting to join in doing something: Mari… Asking which one: Yang mana….? Culture: Transport facts – bargaining before you take a becak; no tickets issued on city buses. Activities: Hot spots – click on the right bus, the right destination, the right passengers • • • In-class Ideas: Describe how to get from point A to point B in your town. Role-play collecting fares and giving change. 25

Berkunjung ke Waterbom Park = A Visit to the Waterbom Park Summary: Sari and Uki plan a visit to Bali’s Waterbom Park. After talking about the facilities and attractions there, they discuss the various rides and slides. Learners are challenged to calculate the speed of the various slides, based on times and distances given. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Parts of the water part: pintu masuk, restoran, kolam renang besar, halaman Numbers Calculations with : dibagi, kali, sama dengan Verbs: naik ban, meluncur, turun Structures: Questions about height, distance, time and speed: Berapa tinggi/panjang/lama/cepat? Berapa meter per detik? Berapa kilometer per jam? Exclamatory phrases: Wah! Asyik! Bukan main! Comparisons: lebih tinggi, lebih panjang, tidak setinggi Boogie Ride Culture: The water park mentioned here is an actual attraction in Kuta Beach, Bal\i. Activities: Hot spot – click on the icon to advance the conversation • • • • • Multiple choice – select the correct formula Drag and drop – move the names of the places in the park to the correct locations In-class Ideas: Discussion: have you been to a water park? Describe what you can see and do there. Activity: using the techniques given in the passage, try and work out someone’s speed on a bike in kilometres/hour, based on the time taken to travel between two points 10 meters apart. Do the same for a skateboard. 26

LINGKUNGAN KITA = OUR ENVIRONMENT APA YANG HARUS KITA BAWA KALAU MAU PERGI KE...? BINATANG YANG DILINDUNGI SAMPAH DAN LINGKUNGAN GUNUNG BERAPI MARI MELESTARIKAN HUTAN Apa yang harus kita bawa kalau mau pergi ke…? = What do we need to take to…? Summary: This passage introduces and reinforces vocabulary used by beginners in a number of different locations and environments. Topics and Key Vocabulary: The beach: baju renang, topi, payung pantai, kacamata hitam The snow: topi wool, baju hangat, kereta salju, sepatu bot Camping: tenda, korek api, alat-alat memasak, makanan A picnic: sepeda, sepatu roda, minuman, bola School: tas sekolah, kamus, makan siang, pensil Structures: Nouns and descriptive noun phrases: pensil berwarna, baju tebal, alat ski Activities: Drag and drop – move the items into the right boxes • • • • • • Matching vocabulary to images Concentration game Text entry In-class Ideas: Students pick the “odd one out” in a list of items associated with a topic Concentration game: match the word with the picture card 27

Binatang yang Dilindungi = Endangered Animals Summary: An overview of four endangered species iIndonesia - tiger, orang-utan, rhinoceros and elephant – examines their characteristics, food needs, habitat and range. The passage concludes with a discussion between a wildlife ranger and some children regarding the biggest threat to these animals: humans. n • • • • Topics and Key Vocabulary: Animal names Characteristics: ciri-ciri, tinggi, berat, panjang, warna, kulit, belalai, cula Foods: daging, rumput, buah-buahan, tanaman Habitat: hutan, padang rumput, rawa, sungai Conservation terms: hidup, mati, punah, dilindungi, diancam, merusak, memburu Structures: A broad range of connected discourse structures – relative clauses, passive clauses, conjunctions, all question types found (yes/no; content; confirmation questions) Culture: Although the environmental message here is well known to many young Australians, discussions about possible solutions cannot be separated from an understanding of Indonesia’s economic and demographic situation. Teachers may need to augment the information contained here to take account of an expanding human population requiring more and more resources, in competition with other species. Activities: Drag and drop – move the animal icons to the right locations Multiple choice – identify the animal from the description Text entry - identify the animal from the description given In-class Ideas: Visit some Internet sites dealing with these endangered animals. A search of the animals’ names on will yield many possibilities. Try doing a search using the Indonesian names too. Class discussion: how can Indonesian people try to ensure that these species don’t all becomes extinct? What can Australians do to help? • 28

Sampah dan Lingkungan = Rubbish and the Environment Summary: This passage deals with the issues of littering, responsible waste disposal, rubbish recycling, and raising public awareness. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Names of items of litter: kulit pisang, bungkus permen, puntung rokok, kaleng minuman, kotoran anjing Location nouns: depan, bawah, belakang, tengah, dekat Rubbish and recycling terms: tukang sampah, tong sampah, daur ulang, pemulung Signs and notices: Dilarang buang sampah di sini! Jagalah kebersihan! Structures: A range of intermediate level sentences Culture: The conversation between the Jakarta scavengers reflects an occupation that is still found in Indonesia and many other countries. Observe the phrasing of the messages in the public signs – how would these resonate with Australians? Activities: Drag and drop – put the rubbish into the appropriate place • • • • • • Hot spots – find where the rubbish is Text re-ordering – conversation between scavengers In-class Ideas: Class discussion: Is careless disposal of rubbish a problem in your school? How can it be overcome? Design a re-cycling plan for your household and classroom waste. Make signs in Indonesian to remind people about how to dispose of their rubbish properly. 29

Gunung Berapi = Volcanoes Summary: This passage explores the global range of volcanoes, how and why they come into being, and their destructive and beneficial effects. A number of well-known Indonesian volcanoes are visited: Tangkuban Perahu, Bromo, Krakatau and Toba, and an animation shows how a caldera is created. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Terms involving natural phenomena and processes: gunung, bumi, batu, magma, kerak bumi, meletus, kawah, lahar, menyuburkan, belerang “Disaster” vocabulary: bencana alam, merusak, menghancurkan, berbahaya, tewas Structures: A range of intermediate-level connected discourse structures, statements and questions. Culture: Located in the “ring of fire”, Indonesia is home to around one-quarter of the world’s active volcanoes. So seismic and volcanic activity are not uncommon in Indonesia. Some seek to explain the role of an unstable geological foundation in forming certain cultural attitudes. At a more practical level, people sometimes have to cope with the discomfort of ash raining from a nearby active volcano. Activities: Drag and drop – re-order the chronology of Krakatau • • • • Hot spots - how far will the hot cloud travel? Match volcanoes and countries. Multiple choice - identifying volcanic ejecta In-class Ideas: Look up some Internet sites on to find out more about volcanoes in Indonesia. Class discussion: How would you design a volcano-proof house/vehicle to keep you safe in the event of an eruption? • • Make a model to explain how a volcano is formed. 30

Mari Melestarikan Hutan = Let’s Save the Forests Summary: This passage looks at forests as sources of natural materials, wildlife habitat and recreation areas for people. The role of the forest as a carbon sink, and the part it plays in the water cycle, is also discussed. Finally, threats to forests are identified: encroachment by humans for housing, agriculture, logging and mining. Topics and Key Vocabulary: Names of natural resources: kayu, bambu, durian, obat Animal names: kera, kupu-kupu, harimau, serangga, rusa Recreation terms: lintas alam, beristirahat, menikmati, segar Basic physics and chemistry: oksigen, menyerap, menguap, transpirasi Water cycle: air, awan, hujan, pelangi, sunga, mengalir Conservation terms: terancam, ditebang, dibakar, menanam tanaman, menambang, gundul, kering, kosong Structures: A range of intermediate-level connected discourse structures Culture: Indonesia’s forests, like those everywhere, are under threat from human overpopulation and over-exploitation. It is likely that effective solutions may need to be global and not just local or national. Teachers may wish to reflect on the role that Australian education can play in this. It is suggested that we need to better understand the overall political, economic and social context of Indonesia before advancing simplistic suggestions for improvement in environmental management there. Activities: Drag and drop – selecting forest products • • • • • Multiple choice – reasons for conserving forests Text entry – enter names of forest dwelling animals In-class Ideas: Class discussion: Debate: Why bother conserving forests? Team project: Make a poster, write a brochure and give an oral presentation on a topic such as: Using forests responsibly. 31

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